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Milk Thistle Extract 250mg

Each capsule contains at least 600 mg butyric acid as calcium/magnesium butyrates.

Ingredients: Butyric acid, calcium hydroxide, magnesium hydroxide. An ingredient not included for dietary purposes but in minute amounts for capsulating is magnesium stearate.

Guaranteed: No yeast, no wheat, no corn, no soy, no dairy products, no artificial colors, resins or fillers.

SUGGESTED USE: 1-2 capsules with each meal.

Store in cool dry place.

Tamper resistant/double sealed

INTERACTIONS/PRECAUTIONS:

DISCLAIMER: The information contained on this web site has not been evaluated by the FDA. It is not intended to treat, diagnose, cure or prevent any disease. Material on the Imupharm web site is provided for educational purposes only. Always seek the advice of your physician or other qualified health care provider with any questions you have regarding a medical condition, and before undertaking any diet, exercise or other health program.



Butyrate or Butyric Acid, a major short-chain fatty acid (SCFA), is one of the main end-products of anaerobic bacterial fermentation of dietary fiber within the human colon and plays a role in the maintenance of colonoic homeostasis. (References 1, 2) It exerts potent effects on a variety of colonic mucosal functions such as inhibition of inflammation and carcinogenesis, reinforcing various components of the colonic defence barrier and decreasing oxidative stress. In addition, butyrate may promote satiety. (Reference 2)

Butyrate is the preferred energy source for colonocytes (cells in the colonic mucosa) and has been shown to induce apoptosis in colorectal cancer cell lines. (Reference 3) It also functions as a histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor to control cell proliferation. (Reference 4) It is recognized for its potential to act on secondary chemoprevention by slowing growth and activating apoptosis in colon cancer cells. Furthermore, SCFAs like Butyrate can also act on primary prevention by activation of different drug metabolising enzymes. This can reduce the burden of carcinogens and, therefore, decrease the number of mutations, reducing cancer risk. Studies show that butyrate had differential effects on colon cancer cells of different stages of cancer development. (Reference 4)



(1) Gonçalves P, Araújo JR, Martel F. Characterization of Butyrate Uptake by Nontransformed Intestinal Epithelial Cell Lines.

(2) Hamer HM, Jonkers D, Venema K, Vanhoutvin S, Troost FJ, Brummer RJ. Review article: the role of butyrate on colonic function. Aliment Pharmacol Ther. 2008 Jan 15;27(2):104-19. Epub 2007 Oct 25.

(3) Fung KY, Brierley GV, Henderson S, Hoffmann P, McColl SR, Lockett T, Head R, Cosgrove L. BUTYRATE-INDUCED APOPTOSIS IN HCT116 COLORECTAL CANCER CELLS INCLUDES INDUCTION OF A CELL STRESS RESPONSE. J Proteome Res. 2011 Jan 15. [Epub ahead of print]

(4) Serpa J, Caiado F, Carvalho T, Torre C, Gonçalves LG, Casalou C, Lamosa P, Rodrigues M, Zhu Z, Lam EW, Dias S. Butyrate-rich colonic microenvironment is a relevant selection factor for metabolically adapted tumor cells. J Biol Chem. 2010 Dec 10;285(50):39211-23. Epub 2010 Oct 6.

(5) Scharlau D, Borowicki A, Habermann N, Hofmann T, Klenow S, Miene C, Munjal U, Stein K, Glei M. Mechanisms of primary cancer prevention by butyrate and other products formed during gut flora-mediated fermentation of dietary fibre. Mutat Res. 2009 Jul-Aug;682(1):39-53. Epub 2009 Apr 19.